Positive Beginnings Supporting young children with challenging behavior

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Social and Communication Development

Learner Objectives

This workshop will teach you to:

  1. Identify major milestones of communication and language development
  2. Identify a variety of forms of nonsymbolic and symbolic communication
  3. Describe the reasons or functions that children communicate even before using words
  4. Describe how the adult and the activity support social and communication skills in young children
  5. Describe how to promote children’s social competence with peers

YOU CAN’T NOT COMMUNICATE

Any Behavior that the child displays or does not display communicates something.

Most challenging behaviors are used by children as a way to communicate something.
Language is learned as a tool for regulating behavior, interacting with others, and acquiring knowledge.
Children with delays in language development are at risk for using challenging behaviors as a way to communicate and get their point across.

Major Stages of Language Development

  • Intentional Communication
  • Using and Understanding Words
  • Having Conversations
  • Children can use challenging behaviors at any of these stages of language development.
  • A developmental framework for the acquisition of communication and language can help us understand children’s use of challenging behaviors.

Intentional Communication

Sharing Attention

Adult Positions Self to Share Attention
Adult Directs Child’s Attention
Child Looks to See if Adult is Watching

Intentional Communication

  • Sharing Attention
  • Sharing Affect
 
 

Intentional Communication

  • Sharing Attention
  • Sharing Affect
  • Sharing Intentions

 

 

Giving
Open-hand Reaching
Reaching for Comfort
Showing
Contact Pointing
Distal Pointing

Using and Understanding Words

  • There is slow vocabulary growth from 12 to 18 months. A vocabulary burst occurs at about 19 months when children begin to combine words.
  • The richest moments for early language learning are when the child is sharing attention, affect, and intentions; and the caregiver talks about the child’s focus of attention.
“Doggie”
“I Don’t Know”
“Fish”

Having Conversations

  • Children are learning the rules of grammar to form sentences from 2 to 5 years.
  • Children learn how to connect sentences in conversation and story telling.
 
 
 
 
 

Stages of Language Development

  • Intentional Communication Logan 21 Months
  • Using & Understanding Words Logan 24 Months
  • Having Conversations Logan 30 Months
Intentional Communication Logan 21 Months
Using & Understanding Words Logan 24 Months
Having Conversations Logan 30 Months

Dimensions of Communication

Every communicative behavior can be described by it's form and function.

  • Form: the behavior used to communicate
  • Function: the reason or purpose of the communicative behavior

Form of Communication

  • Nonsymbolic or Symbolic
  • Conventional or Unconventional

Form of Communication

Nonsymbolic

  • Laughs, cries, or other sounds
  • Giving, pushing away, waving, pointing, or other gestures
  • Hitting, pinching, biting, or other problem behaviors

Symbolic

  • Words or sentences
  • Sign language
  • Written language
  • Photographs or pictures

Form of Communication

Conventional or Socially Acceptable

  • Laughs or cries
  • Giving, pushing away, showing, reaching, waving, pointing, clapping, shaking head, nodding head
  • Words with shared meaning
  • Written language or pictures

Unconventional or Socially Unacceptable

  • Squeals or yells
  • Screams
  • Pulling other by the hand
  • Hitting, kicking, biting
  • Echolalia or words with idiosyncratic meanings

Form of Communication

Nonsymbolic / Symbolic

Conventional and Socially Acceptable

Form of Communication:

Nonsymbolic and Conventional Give

Form of Communication:

Nonsymbolic and Conventional Push Away

Form of Communication:

Symbolic and Conventional Words and Gestures

Form of Communication:

Symbolic and Conventional Word Combinations & Gestures

Form of Communication:

Unconventional and/or Socially Unacceptable

Form of Communication:

Nonsymbolic and Unconventional Self injury

Form of Communication:

Conventional & Socially Inappropriate Tantrum

Form of Communication

  • Regulate Others’ Behavior
    • request object/ action/ assistance/ activity/ sensory stimulus
    • protest object/ action/ assistance/ activity/ sensory stimulus
  • Draw Attention to Self
    • request social game/ comfort
    • greet/ call/ take turns
    • show off
  • Draw Attention to Object or Event
    • comment on object/ action/ event
    • request information about object/ action/ event

Regulate Others’ Behavior

  • Request object or action
  • Request assistance
  • Request a desired activity
  • Request a desired sensory stimulus
  • Protest an undesired object or action
  • Protest an undesired activity or assistance
  • Protest an undesired sensory stimulus

Regulate Others’ Behavior

Request Object

Regulate Others’ Behavior

Request Action

Regulate Others’ Behavior

Protest End of Turn

Regulate Others’ Behavior

Protest Leaving

Draw Attention to Self

  • Request a social game
  • Request comfort
  • Greet
  • Call
  • Take turns
  • Show off

Draw Attention to Self

Request Social Game

Draw Attention to Self

Show Off- Look at me!

Draw Attention to Self

Request Comfort

Draw Attention to Self

Show Off Look How Silly I Am

Draw Attention to Object or Event

  • Comment on or label an object
  • Comment on an action or event
  • Request information about an object
  • Request information about an action or event

Draw Attention to Object or Event

Comment – Look at what I made!

Draw Attention to Object or Event

Comment – Finding Noses!

Draw Attention to Object or Event

Comment – Chocolate in the Water!

Practice Activity

Jamaal at 21 Months

Repair Strategies

What does the child do to clarify meaning when not understood?

  • Successful Repair:
    • Repeats communication
    • Modifies communication
  • Unsuccessful Repair:
    • Abandons communicative goal
    • Uses challenging behavior

Repair Strategies

Successful Repair – Repeats

Repair Strategies

Successful Repair Adds Gesture

Repair Strategies

Successful Repair – Giving Jar

Practice Activity

How Does Cameron Repair?

How Can the Activity and Adult Support Communication?

  • Plan activities to support communication
    • Predictable sequence of turn-taking
    • Mutual attention and participation
    • Exchangeable, cooperative roles
    • Planned repetition and variation
  • Be a responsive partner to support communication
    • Wait
    • Recognize child’s communication
    • Respond contingently

Supporting Communication

Responsive Adult in Successful Activity

Supporting Communication

Repetition and Cooperative Roles

Practice Activity

What Supports Communication?

Practice Activity

What Supports are Missing?

Practice Activity

What Supports Communication?

Practice Activity

What Supports are Missing?

Practice Activity

What Supports Communication?

Using Communication to Promote Social Competence with Peers

  • Using words instead of behavior
  • Developing negotiation strategies
  • Making friends

Promoting Peer Interaction

Proximity and Enough Materials

Promoting Peer Interaction

Making Friends

Practice Activity

What Supports are Missing?

Practice Activity

What Supports are Missing?

Small Group

Practice Activity

Link Between Behavior and Communication

  • Challenging behavior can be a form of communication.
  • Supporting the child begins by determining what communicative function behavior serves.